As a result, the skin does not experience any type of potentially dangerous absorption. THIS SITE IS FOR INFORMATIONAL PURPOSES ONLY AND SHOULD NOT BE USED AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR ADVICE OR TREATMENT FROM A QUALIFIED MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL. It traps everything under it—including bacteria, sebum, and impurities—which could lead to increased breakouts and blackheads. This leads to skin that looks and feels moisturized and smooth. Best Options for Natural Skin Care. jQuery('#text-7 .title').click(function(){ They may be added to a range of products, including rinse-off cosmetics, personal care and cleaning products. Polyethylene is the most common plastic in the world. Polyethylene works in many ways to improve the texture and feel of skincare and cosmetic formulations. Definitely, what a magnificent blog and instructive posts, I definitely will bookmark your website.Have an awsome day! 8. For this reason many countries and brands have banned and discontinued their use in cosmetic products. Dimethicone has been shown time and time again to be non-comedogenic. Trust us it’s a novel beginning. Another function of polyethylene in cosmetics and skincare products is as a film-forming agent. One of the reasons why, according to the CIR, is that polyethylene polymers are large. ‘Safety Evaluation of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Compounds for Cosmetic Use’, Toxicological Research, 31, 105–136. Fruijtier-Pölloth C. Safety assessment on polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and their derivatives as used in cosmetic products. the not so good:No significant dermal absorption. I’m having a look forward to your next submit, I will attempt to get the cling of it! With the increased awareness about how we use plastic, we thought you might be interested to know more about the environmental impact of plastics like polyethylene and polypropylene. Mohammadi S, Ghourchian S, Izadi F, Daneshi A, Ahmadi A. Porous high-density polyethylene in facial reconstruction and revision rhinoplasty: a prospective cohort study. It is also used in cosmetics. Polyethylene is a thermoplastic resin that is widely used all around the world because it is one of the cheapest and easiest polymers to synthesize. Examples include nylon, polyethylene, polyester, Teflon, and epoxy. Consult your healthcare provider before using supplements. Rodriguez F, Stevens M, Preston J, Kauffman G, Bierwagen G, Gent A. major industrial polymers – Polyethylene (PE) | polymer. The information provided herein is intended for your general knowledge only and is not intended to be, nor is it, medical advice or a substitute for medical advice. According to the panel, polyethylene is safe for in personal care as well as cosmetic products. They estimate that one single care product, like Neutrogena's Deep Clean, contains 360,000 microbeads in a single package. The Panel noted the large molecular size of polyethylene polymers used in cosmetics and personal care products, which led them to believe that there would not be significant dermal absorption of polyethylene. Got any Questions for us? 7. Polypropylene is bad for the endocrine system. For media inquiries, please email: [email protected]. Trust us, you don’t want to miss these deals! This protective barrier or films helps the skin to retain moisture. 7 Cosmetic Ingredients that are Bad for the Environment April 18, 2016 + Rebecca . Why Dimethicone is Bad for Your Skin. The Panel noted the large molecular size of polyethylene polymers used in cosmetics and personal care products, which led them to believe that there would not be significant dermal absorption of polyethylene. Personally, if all webmasters and bloggers made just right content as you probably did, the web will probably be a lot more useful than ever before. Becker L, Bergfeld W, Belsito D et al. This means that polyethylene is unlikely to have any toxicity or sensitivity issues. Studies also show that the use of eye cosmetic products containing PET showed no visual or skin irritation.6, Polyethylene glycols (PEG) and its byproducts are used in medicine and cosmetics because they have a low acute and chronic toxicities. Parabens aren't just bad for humans, they impact the environment too. Medlineplusgov. The presence of any impurities would be so low that there are no toxicity concerns. As with all Etee’s products, they ship them in a cardboard box with cellulose packing tape. OTHER COMPANIES’ MARKS USED ON THIS SITE REMAIN THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OF THEIR RESPECTIVE OWNERS. Polyethylene (PE) is a type of plastic or ethylene polymer which was first produced accidentally by German Chemist Hans Von Pechmann in 1899. They should. 1. PEG is an acronym for polyethylene glycol, an amazingly versatile ingredient in skin care products because of the many uses it has and its broad compatibility with different types of ingredients.PEG is often mixed with an array of hydrating emollients, beneficial fatty acids, and cleansing agents. Polyethylene is one of the most commonly used microplastics in cosmetic products such as eyeliners, mascara, eye shadows, eyebrow pencils, lipsticks, face powders and foundations, as well as skin cleansers and skin care products. The Environmental Working Group reported at the time that “56% of beach and sport sunscreens contain the chemical oxybenzone. 2016. If so, you, What, exactly, is petrolatum? Beiersdorf was one of the first cosmetics companies to decide to stop using polyethylene peeling particles, back in 2013, and to replace them with environmentally friendly alternatives in the future. A lack of dermal absorption would limit systemic or significant internal exposure to polyethylene. It can cause genetic mutations and tumors. Several kinds of polythenes are known with most having the chemical formula (C 2H4)nH2. Additionally, their solubility and viscosity properties make them safe and ideal for use in cosmetics.7 Polyethylene glycols are widely used in many skincare and medical products including conditioners, deodorant, and laxatives.8, You might be a little leery of using cosmetics containing polyethylene. It also offers smooth water flow, and it is resistant to the build-up of scale and lime deposits. 2009;20(4):1245-1249. doi:10.1097/scs.0b013e3181acdfaf. These are natu… The safety of polyethylene has been assessed by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel. If you have or suspect you have, a specific medical condition or disease, please consult your healthcare provider. Isohexadecane is an ingredient used in skincare and cosmetic formulations to... What is Stearyl Alcohol? Polythene or polyethylene is a polymer of ethylene gas (CH 2=CH 2) which is commonly used in our day to day life like grocery bags, shampoo bottles, bullet proof vests etc. Share your answer, Enjoy this adorable puppy to ease your Sunday scar, Act fast! Keep putting up. 5. I am returning to your website for more soon.|. Polyethylene was first synthesized by German chemist Hans von Pechmann, who prepared it by accident in 1898 while investigating a compound called diazomethane. 2005;214(1-2):1-38. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2005.06.001. You actually know it, The entire month of December being dedicated to Ch, Happy Hannukah from Dr. Danielpour and his beautif, Have you shopped our Anti-Aging Lip Enhancer Tinte, Watch to learn how to give your feet a "foot power, A solid skincare routine is an essential part of g, Curious to learn what foods are beneficial for ant, Every day, 540 babies around the world are born wi, When it comes to skincare, there are certain produ, This error message is only visible to WordPress admins, Think and Full Brow Enhancing Serum Coupon, Collagen Benefits For Hair, Skin, And Nails. TO LEARN MORE ABOUT THE DETAILS OF THESE RELATIONSHIPS AND HOW PRODUCTS ARE RANKED ON OUR SITE, PLEASE READ THE "FULL DISCLOSURE" AND "METHODOLOGY" SECTIONS. However, the aforementioned Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) safety program has determined that skin care products with polyethylene are not toxic. This film helps to prevent water from evaporating from the skin or being lost to harsh or dry environments. 9. www.cospheric.com/polyethylene_microspheres_safety_data.htm, Accessed March 26, 2018. In honor of Earth Day (April 22 nd, 2016), I wanted to remind our readers of those ingredients in personal care products that are known to harm the environment. •, Did you know our Ultra Firm Lifting Eye Mask has R, It's the blankets, for us. Protective  This protective barrier or films helps the skin to retain moisture. PEG’s are usually followed by a number e.g. Fortunately, there are plenty of great alternatives, providing all of the care your complexion needs without any of the controversy. Here is an in-depth look at ingredients to avoid in makeup and skin care. This property is useful for the formulation of sun protection products that need to be formulated to be water resistant. the good:Helps to keep moisture in and protect the skin from water loss. Kim Y, Kim B, Jang T. Use of Porous High-Density Polyethylene (Medpor) for Spreader or Extended Septal Graft in Rhinoplasty. Scientists discovered how to make synthetic polymers in the chemistry lab. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency calls 1,4-dioxane a human carcinogen. And please don’t make the assumption that “you get what you pay for” in the world of skincare products. Safety tests have failed to show any toxicity associated with cosmetic-grade polyethylene. Acetyl glucosamine is a skin-replenishing ingredient that helps to reduc... What Is Acetyl Hexapeptide 8? Overall, the  Expert Panel concluded that polyethylene was safe for use in cosmetics and personal care products. All Rights Reserved. It can mimic the female hormone estrogen, therefore causing an overload of it in the woman’s body, which causes problems with fertility and conceiving. Polyethylene has been noted as a skin irritant and should never be used on broken skin. Polyethylene is used as a binding and thickening ingredient. Safety Assessment of Modified Terephthalate Polymers as Used in Cosmetics. Polyethylene is found in hundreds of things we see and use in a daily basis, including plastic grocery bags, plastic bottles, plastic toys, and plastic containers. Flash forward a few years, and that substance was identified as polymethylene, which is almost identical to polyethylene.1, You have probably heard about surgical procedures such as rhinoplasty and facial reconstruction. Polyethylene has been used as an abrasive ingredient in products such as exfoliator and toothpaste. It is even resistant to the natural shifting of soil, which m… Ethylene oxide can also harm the nervous system ii and the California Environmental Protection Agency has classified it as a developmental toxican… 2012;8(1). When applied to the skin, polyethylene forms a soft, invisible film on the surface of the skin. The manufacturing process of PEG’s may use ethylene oxide and 1,4 dioxane. Ou, Holiday stress getting the best of you? According to the Skin Deep guide, Polyethylene is classified as being a moderate to high hazard depending on product usage. Polyethylene glycol compounds have not received a lot of attention from consumer watchdog groups. These days, there’s plastic in everything…and honestly, it’s not all bad… especially if you’re talking about certain types of polyethylene. EXCLUDING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY OWNED BY OTHERS, ALL SITE CONTENT IS COPYRIGHTED OR LICENSED FOR USE BY THE OWNER OF THIS SITE. You might find, amongst others, the following phrase: “Polyethylene Glycol (PEG): Carcinogenic petroleum ingredient that reduces the skin’s natural moisture. About Etee. window.location.href = '/contact'; It’s beautiful value sufficient for me. The CIR Expert Panel is made up of professionals in the areas of toxicology, dermatology, pharmacology and even veterinary medicine. Moreover, safety tests of cosmetic grade polyethylene have consistently failed to identify any toxicity. Even though the cosmetic industry is largely unregulated, with a few mindful steps, you can protect, heal, and restore your skin in a way that keeps you healthy and helps the environment. What Are Parabens – And Are They Bad For You? Accessed October 4, 2016. The film formed by polyethylene not only protects the skin from moisture loss but also prevents moisture penetration. “Beverly Hills MD” is a trademark of Beverly Hills MD, LLC. It’s a porous, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) found to be safe and stable.4 HDPE is also used in many packaging products including milk, juice, and water bottles, and as an ingredient in basic household items including shampoo, detergent, cleaners, and motor oil. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Want to know what others thought about Beverly Hills MD products? Microbeads are small, solid, manufactured plastic particles that are less than 5mm and don’t degrade or dissolve in water. One of the reasons why, according to the CIR, is that polyethylene polymers are large. What Is Isohexadecane? Polyethylene was first synthesized by German chemist Hans von Pechmann, who prepared it by accident in 1898 while investigating a compound called diazomethane. These zero waste vegan skin care products are also cruelty free, palm oil free and have zero plastic packaging. Free Shipping over $39 (Domestic Only) + 60 Day Money Back Guarantee, Free Shipping over $39 (Domestic Only) + 90 Day Money Back Guarantee, Enter Your Email To See Our First Time Customer Deal. Synergetic ingredients:Works well with most ingredients, Keep an eye on:Impurities are less of an issue. Let’s take a closer look at polyethylene and find out. 3. Use only as directed. you have done a fantastic job on this topic! The molecular weight of polyethylene can vary from 198 to 150,000, depending on the length of the chain. Increases the appearance of aging and leaves you vulnerable to bacteria. MedicineNet. Polyethylene dries to form a thin coating on the skin, hair or nails. ⁠ Small, solid plastic beads made of Polyethylene, often called microbeads, are also used for exfoliating, smoothing, or polishing the skin. Polyethylene is the most common plastic in the world. One of the main reasons polyethylene is considered to be a controversial ingredient is due to its use in microbeads. Be choosy about which products you use to keep your skin safe and looking its best. PEGs (also known as Polyethylene Glycol) is part of a family of synthetic chemical compounds often used in cosmetic and personal care products. HDPE is extremely flexible, which allows it to be placed in a wide variety of spaces and environmental conditions. Depending on manufacturing processes, PEGs may be contaminated with measurable amounts of ethylene oxide and 1,4-dioxane. Examples include silk, wool, cellulose, pectin, and proteins. This beauty bundle is over very soon! In addition to its use in cosmetics and personal care products, polyethylene is widely used in packaging materials and in medical devices such as prosthetics. 2. It is commonly used in cosmetics and personal care products, food packaging materials, and medical devices. 4. doi:10.1186/1746-160x-8-17. Polyethylene is a synthetic ingredient that is used for a variety of purposes in cosmetics and personal care products, including as a binder, thickener, film-forming agent, emulsion stabilizer, and abrasive. Retinyl palmitate and retinyl acetate. Accessed October 4, 2016. }); †These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. It was a white, waxy substance. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2016. These polyethylene beads in scrubs and body washes are also not filtered by our sewage systems, meaning they can collect pollutants and travel into waterways, where they’re consumed by fish and marine animals. This family of synthetic chemicals functions in cosmetic formulations as surfactants, cleansing agents, emulsifiers, skin conditioners, and humectants. Polyethylene has also been largely used for the formation of microbeads. Annals of Plastic Surgery. Your email address will not be published. When applied to the skin, polyethylene forms a soft, invisible film on the surface of the skin. It is corrosion resistantand naturally inhibits the growth of certain organisms. The Expert Panel investigated this and found that in the United States, ethylene is 99.9% pure. you’re really a good webmaster. THOSE RELATIONSHIPS MAY AFFECT HOW WE REVIEW AND RANK PRODUCTS OR SERVICES MENTIONED ON THE SITE. PET: polyethylene terephthalate PET is commonly used in commercially sold water bottles, soft drink bottles, sports drink bottles and condiment bottles (like ketchup). Who is it for?All skin types except those that have an identified allergy to it. Here, discover six everyday skincare ingredients linked to ecotoxicity, and some great products which do just as good a job without them. Polyethylene. 10 www.cir-safety.org/sites/default/files/ModTer_122012_Tent_faa_final%20for%20posting.pdf, Accessed March 26, 2018. Our customers most often see it used in fabrics like knitted shade. In these medical procedures, the use of artificial materials is necessary to reconstruct injured tissues that may have been caused by various medical conditions such as burn, trauma, cancer and even skull fractures where cranioplasty is required.2,3, One example of implant that is used as a filler or extended septal graft in rhinoplasty, whether functional or for cosmetic purposes is Medpor®. One of its most popular uses in skin care products is as an ingredient in exfoliators, in which small beads made of Polyethylene are used for smoothing or polishing the skin. You actually make it appear so easy together with your presentation but I to find this matter to be really something which I think I would never understand. However, microbeads are generally considered to be highly detrimental to the environment as the small plastic beads end up in our oceans, harming marine life. Why You Should Care About What Sunscreen You Use. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. Jang, H, Shin, C, & Kim, K, 2015. It also includes experts with both the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.9. Microbeads were used as they were a gentler alternative to exfoliators such as walnut shells. Stearyl alcohol is a natural fatty alcohol that is used as an emollient, em... What Is Acetyl Glucosamine? Reading time ~ 8 minutes. Polypropylene is bad for the reproductive system. That artificial coating on the outside of skin causes several issues: 1. Check Out These Cute And Stylish Ways To Keep Hair Out Of... Make Your Own DIY Deodorant Right At Home: DIY Hygiene An... Error: API requests are being delayed for this account. Eyeliners, eye shadows, mascara, lipstick, and blush-ons are just some of the many beauty products that may contain polyethylene. International Journal of Toxicology. Everything You Need to Know about Hyaluronic Acid. Is it good for your skin? While this is the case in many other fields, it is not very true in the personal care world. Covid-19, click here was safe for use by the OWNER of THEDERMREVIEW.COM material... Policy pursuant to GDPR.Please take a closer look at ingredients to avoid in makeup and skin care products are cruelty... Human carcinogen moisture carriers Did you know our Ultra Firm Lifting eye Mask has R, it is resistant the! Polyvinyl chloride ( PVC, vinyl ) any attention-grabbing article like yours or dry environments low. What are parabens – and are they Bad for the environment April 18 2016! Kovacs R. plastic: Health and disease Prevention – What is polyvinyl chloride (,! Cruelty free, palm oil free and have zero plastic packaging advantages over other of! Yet to rid their personal care as well as cosmetic products should care about What you. Ingredients that are Bad for humans, they impact the environment April,... Rank products or SERVICES MENTIONED on the SITE Holiday stress getting the best of?... Appearance of aging and leaves you vulnerable to bacteria hdpe offers significant advantages over other types of materials. Products, food packaging materials, and are often water-based shower gels ) to provide a skin-friendly peeling a called. From ethylene would be so low that there are no concerns regarding eye injuries due glitter! Of dermal absorption all Etee ’ s products, including rinse-off cosmetics, personal world. Again to be formulated to be water resistant tests have failed to show any toxicity associated with cosmetic-grade.. Is unlikely to have any toxicity is not intended to diagnose, treat cure... A number e.g oil-based ingredients in these products for a variety of purposes have failed! Or disease, please email: [ email protected ] helps to reduc... What is Hexapeptide! This family of synthetic chemicals functions in cosmetic products free and have zero plastic packaging calls... I am returning to your website for more details six everyday skincare ingredients linked to,. In products such as walnut shells WE Review and RANK products or MENTIONED! Classified as being a moderate to high hazard depending on the environment high-density polyethylene ( hdpe ) is a made. In microbeads Terephthalate polymers as used in cosmetics and personal care as well as cosmetic.... Ingredients to avoid in makeup and skin care ingredients to avoid the formulation sun. The industry but these occur in nature and are often water-based bind solid together. Particles that are Bad for the formulation of sun protection products that contain polyethylene.10 it important to microbeads! Products which do just as good a job without them chemical formula ( C 2H4 ) nH2 surface the... Media inquiries, please email: [ email protected ] after manufacturing being through! Tests have failed to identify any toxicity or sensitivity issues April 18 2016! And more Bad buzz, and medical devices Sunday scar, Act fast may... Or dissolve in water the world, but these occur in nature and are often water-based they estimate that single! Or SERVICES MENTIONED on the length of the reasons why, according to the CIR, is petrolatum also moisture. Exfoliant scrubs and toothpastes are at various stages of being phased out polyethylene in skin care bad for environment the OWNER of THEDERMREVIEW.COM has material RELATIONSHIPS... Many ways to improve the texture and feel of skincare products is as a skin irritant and should be. The CIR, is that polyethylene is the case in many ways to improve the texture and feel of products. Vegan skin care, but it can be washed off ( e.g brands., yet i by no means discovered any attention-grabbing article like yours not biodegradable, and.. Loss but also prevents moisture penetration email protected ] called diazomethane it by accident in while... Of synthetic chemicals functions in cosmetic formulations to... What is Acetyl Hexapeptide?!, LLC or dry environments, is petrolatum to provide a skin-friendly peeling box with cellulose tape. Beverly Hills MD ” is a skin-replenishing ingredient that helps to keep your skin safe and looking its.. It is corrosion resistantand naturally inhibits the growth of certain organisms the,. Filler reviews, and can last for hundreds of years before degrading, their implications on the does... Policy pursuant to GDPR.Please take a closer look at ingredients to avoid skin., Did you know our Ultra Firm Lifting eye Mask has R, it commonly... Companies are yet to rid their personal care products useful for the of... Page for more details lime deposits as they were a gentler alternative to exfoliators such as 1,4-dioxane 1,4-dioxane as SUBSTITUTE. For? all skin types except those that have an identified allergy to it attempt to get the of. Gentler alternative to exfoliators such as exfoliator and toothpaste regarding eye injuries due to its in... It also offers smooth water flow, and medical devices they may be to! 31, 105–136 regarding eye injuries due to its use in microbeads the concentration of impurities in the personal products! The good: helps to reduc... What is Acetyl Hexapeptide 8 in nature and are Bad. Most often see it used in cosmetics and personal care products with polyethylene are toxic. Contain polyethylene of impurities in the areas of toxicology, dermatology, pharmacology and even veterinary medicine and great! A magnificent blog and instructive posts, i definitely will bookmark your website.Have an awsome day website for details... Ingredients together and thicken the oil-based ingredients in a cardboard box with cellulose packing tape those RELATIONSHIPS may AFFECT WE... Consult your healthcare provider States, ethylene is 99.9 % pure the skin to retain.! Parabens – and are starting to targeted also by regulations on polyethylene glycols pegs! So low that there are no toxicity concerns as of 2017, 100... Cleansing agents, emulsifiers, skin conditioners, and humectants zero waste skin! The United States, ethylene is 99.9 % pure an issue protected ] Hans von Pechmann, who prepared by... The appearance of aging and leaves you vulnerable to bacteria ADVICE or TREATMENT from a QUALIFIED medical.! Were used as a skin irritant and should not be used on this internet SITE is instructive! May use ethylene oxide and 1,4 dioxane with a low melting point and high durability environment 18! Panel is made up of professionals in the world of skincare products to have any toxicity Compounds have received... Useful for the environment too when used responsibly eye on: impurities are less than 5mm don... A formulation skincare ingredients linked to ecotoxicity, and it is corrosion resistantand naturally inhibits growth. Cure or prevent any disease becker L, Bergfeld W, Belsito D et al important to stop microbeads the. On this SITE REMAIN the INTELLECTUAL property OWNED by others, all CONTENT... Getting more and more Bad buzz, and Thick + Full Brow Enhancing reviews ( C 2H4 nH2. And toothpaste make synthetic polymers in the polyethylene produced from ethylene would be so as...: impurities are less than 5mm and don ’ t want to know What thought! Are at various stages of being phased out by the OWNER of this SITE s... C 2H4 ) nH2 polyethylene in skin care bad for environment ingredients that are less of an issue – What polyvinyl. Solid ingredients together and thicken the oil-based ingredients in a formulation ( )! Use ’, Toxicological Research, 31, 105–136, contains 360,000 microbeads in a wide variety of purposes to. And discontinued their use in cosmetics and personal care world trust us, don! Have failed to show any toxicity manufactured plastic particles were used in products! Most ingredients, keep an eye on: impurities are less than 5mm and don ’ t degrade or in! Feel of skincare products is as a polyethylene in skin care bad for environment agent to miss these deals ingredients that are Bad for you use... Seems too complicated and extremely broad for me awsome day derivatives as used in cosmetics skincare! Ingredient Review Expert Panel concluded there are no toxicity concerns and smooth is very instructive kayaking and burns..., shower gels ) to provide a skin-friendly peeling n't just Bad for the formulation sun! A low melting point and high durability as solvents, thickeners, softeners moisture... Those RELATIONSHIPS may AFFECT how WE Review and RANK products or SERVICES MENTIONED the... Synthesized by German chemist Hans von Pechmann, who prepared it by accident 1898. What you pay for ” in the polyethylene produced from ethylene would be so low that there are also free! Surfactants, cleansing agents, emulsifiers, skin conditioners, and humectants be as. Wide variety of purposes of purposes that have an identified allergy to it no discovered. Care about What Sunscreen you use to keep moisture in and protect the skin Bad... April 18, 2016 + Rebecca the most polyethylene in skin care bad for environment plastic in the past small! Licensed for use in cosmetics and personal care products artificial coating on the SITE, pharmacology and even veterinary.... Porous high-density polyethylene ( Medpor ) for Spreader or Extended Septal Graft Rhinoplasty... A binding and thickening ingredient and cleaning products polyethylene resins are produced annually, for... Of PEG ’ s take a moment to Review countries and brands have banned discontinued... Years before degrading the concentration of impurities in the past, small, solid, manufactured plastic particles used... Glitter products that need to be water resistant process of PEG ’ s are usually followed a! Hdpe ) is a polymer made up of repeating ethylene units chemical formula ( C 2H4 ).. It to be non-comedogenic spray-on oven cleaners and cleansers to dissolve oil grease.... Of synthetic chemicals functions in cosmetic products product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent disease...